Title

Links Between Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining and Organized Crime in Latin America and Africa

Date of Publication

2021 12:00 AM

Security Theme

Transnational Organized Crime

Keywords

ASGM, organized crime, illegal mining, artisanal mining, small-scale gold mining, Latin America, Africa, trafficking in persons, TIP, human trafficking, sexual exploitation, labor trafficking, migrant smuggling, money laundering

Description

“This chapter provides a comparative review of the interfaces between artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and organized crime in Latin America and Africa, focusing on trafficking in persons (TIP) for sexual exploitation and forced labor, migrant smuggling, and money laundering. It is argued that the interfaces between ASGM and these organized crime activities are a reflection of criminal structures, networks, and activities that existed prior to the global surge in ASGM. Reflecting long-standing organized criminal hierarchies, organized crime groups (OCGs) in Latin America tend to be more structured and tightly held than those in Africa, which tend to be large networks concentrated along nodes in the supply chain or involve armed groups engaging in organized crime. These reflect the types of groups that already existed rather than the establishment of new ones or new organizational structures. The more established that OCGs are, the more easily they can diversify into the ASGM sector and achieve greater levels of criminal capture and profit. In both regions, however, OCGs have shifted or diversified their activities to include gold-related activities because of the high-profit and low-risk nature of ASGM."

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Jan 1st, 12:00 AM

Links Between Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining and Organized Crime in Latin America and Africa

“This chapter provides a comparative review of the interfaces between artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and organized crime in Latin America and Africa, focusing on trafficking in persons (TIP) for sexual exploitation and forced labor, migrant smuggling, and money laundering. It is argued that the interfaces between ASGM and these organized crime activities are a reflection of criminal structures, networks, and activities that existed prior to the global surge in ASGM. Reflecting long-standing organized criminal hierarchies, organized crime groups (OCGs) in Latin America tend to be more structured and tightly held than those in Africa, which tend to be large networks concentrated along nodes in the supply chain or involve armed groups engaging in organized crime. These reflect the types of groups that already existed rather than the establishment of new ones or new organizational structures. The more established that OCGs are, the more easily they can diversify into the ASGM sector and achieve greater levels of criminal capture and profit. In both regions, however, OCGs have shifted or diversified their activities to include gold-related activities because of the high-profit and low-risk nature of ASGM."