Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Electrical and Computer Engineering
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electrical and electronics, signal processing, systems and communications
Date of Defense
There has been a constant increase in data-traffic and device-connections in mobile wireless communications, which led the fifth generation (5G) implementations to exploit mm-wave bands at 24/28 GHz. The next-generation wireless access point (6G and beyond) will need to adopt large-scale transceiver arrays with a combination of multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) theory and fully digital multi-beam beamforming. The resulting high gain array factors will overcome the high path losses at mm-wave bands, and the simultaneous multi-beams will exploit the multi-directional channels due to multi-path effects and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Such access points will be based on electronic systems which heavily depend on the integration of RF electronics with digital signal processing performed in Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)/ RF-system-on-chip (SoC).
This dissertation is directed towards the investigation and realization of fully-digital phased arrays that can produce wideband simultaneous multi-beams with FPGA or RF-SoC digital back-ends. The first proposed approach is a spatial bandpass (SBP) IIR filter-based beamformer, and is based on the concepts of space-time network resonance. A 2.4 GHz, 16-element array receiver, has been built for real-time experimental verification of this approach. The second and third approaches are respectively based on Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) theory, and a lens plus focal planar array theory. Lens based approach is essentially an analog model of DFT. These two approaches are verified for a 28 GHz 800 MHz mm-wave implementation with RF-SoC as the digital back-end. It has been shown that for all proposed multibeam beamformer implementations, the measured beams are well aligned with those of the simulated. The proposed approaches differ in terms of their architectures, hardware complexity and costs, which will be discussed as this dissertation opens up.
This dissertation also presents an application of multi-beam approaches for RF directional sensing applications to explore white spaces within the spatio-temporal spectral regions. A real-time directional sensing system is proposed to capture the white spaces within the 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi band.
Further, this dissertation investigates the effect of electro-magnetic (EM) mutual coupling in antenna arrays on the real-time performance of fully-digital transceivers. Different algorithms are proposed to uncouple the mutual coupling in digital domain. The first one is based on finding the MC transfer function from the measured S-parameters of the antenna array and employing it in a Frost FIR filter in the beamforming backend. The second proposed method uses fast algorithms to realize the inverse of mutual coupling matrix via tridiagonal Toeplitz matrices having sparse factors. A 5.8 GHz 32-element array and 1-7 GHz 7-element tightly coupled dipole array (TCDA) have been employed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of these algorithms.
Pulipati, Sravan kumar, "Design and Realization of Fully-digital Microwave and Mm-wave Multi-beam Arrays with FPGA/RF-SOC Signal Processing" (2021). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 4652.
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