Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Environmental Engineering

First Advisor's Name

Walter Z. Tang

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Steven C. MceCutcheon

Third Advisor's Name

Wolfgang F. Rogge

Fourth Advisor's Name

Hector R. Fuentes

Date of Defense



An advanced oxidation process, which uses Fenton's Reagent (H2O2/Fe2+), is studied in the destruction of three different classes of azo dyes. The optimal pH and stochiometry for H202 and Fe2+ in the oxidation of the azo dyes were investigated; an experimental optimal ratio was also compared to a theoretical optimal ratio of H202 to Fe2+. The optimal oxidation of monoazo and disazo dyes is at pH 3 and pH 4, respectively. The optimal ratio for monoazo and disazo dyes ranged from 1 to 10. The experimentally determined optimal ratios are in excellent agreement with theoretically predicted optimal H202 to Fe2+ ratio of 11. Complexation was observed in oxidation of trisazo dye Direct Blue 71. A lower optimal ratio of H202 to Fe2+ for trisazo dye than ratios required for mono and disazo dyes, is due to a larger amount of Fe2+ associated with Fe complexation of chromophore.

Due to a relatively large amount of sludge, which is generated by the common Fenton's Reagent, this study was expanded to characterize the performance of a novel H202 and Fe powder system. This system decolorizes the same dyes from Fenton's treatment. Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction were studied. The kinetics followed pseudo-first order and Fenton's Reagent was the major mechanism. The degradation rate depends upon both numbers of azo bonds and auxiliary groups. The rate of decolorization of the dye decreases as the pH level increases. Hydrogen peroxide and iron powder system resulted in higher color removal, at lower sludge production, for selected dyes at lower pH than the Fenton's Reagent treatment option.

Keywords: Azo dyes, Fenton's Reagent, Hydrogen Peroxide, Zero Valent Iron, Hydroxyl Radical, Advanced Oxidation Process, Oxidation, and Optimal Ratio of H20 2/Fe2+.




If you are the rightful copyright holder of this dissertation or thesis and wish to have it removed from the Open Access Collection, please submit a request to and include clear identification of the work, preferably with URL.



Rights Statement

Rights Statement

In Copyright. URI:
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).