Nano-grids of Yeast Cytochrome C

Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor's Name

Richard T. Schoephoerster

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Malek Adjouadi

Third Advisor's Name

Sakhrat Khizroev

Fourth Advisor's Name

Watson Lees

Date of Defense



One innovative thought in biomolecular electronics is the exploitation of electron transfer proteins. Using nature's self assembly techniques, proteins can build highly organized edifices with retained functional activity, and they can serve as platforms for biosensors.

In this research work, Yeast Cytochrome C (YCC) is immobilized with a help of a linker molecule, 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTS) on a hydroxylated surface of a silicon substrate. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used for characterization. AFM data shows immobilization of one YCC molecule in between eight grids that are formed by the linker molecules. 3-MPTS monolayers are organized in grids that are 1.2 nm apart. Immobilization of 3-MPTS was optimized using a concentration of 5 mM in a completely dehydrated state for 30 minutes.

The functionally active grids of YCC can now be incorporated with Cytochrome C oxidase on a Platinum electrode surface for transfer of electrons in development of biosensors, such as nitrate sensor, that are small in size, cheaper, and easier to manufacture than the top-down approach of fabrication of molecular biodevices



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