Conceptualizing the T in STEM: A Systematic Review

Date of this Version

March 2019

Document Type



In this systematic review, we examine multiple perspectives on the role of technology (hereafter “T”) in the field of integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (hereafter “STEM”) for the last two decades. We identify prominent positions and highlight characteristics of conceptualizations that continue to shape integrated STEM teaching and learning. Findings indicate three central conceptualizations of T in STEM: T as learning technologies; T as the product of E in STEM; and T as computational participation, which includes coding and computational thinking. We discuss how these prominent perspectives are not mutually exclusive and make a case for pluralistic approaches that empower practitioners, including teacher educators and teachers, to dynamically build on one or more of these conceptualizations. We conclude with a call to practitioners to engage with the T in STEM, with thoughtful consideration of localized contexts, thereby incorporating conceptualizations of technology towards more meaningfully integrated STEM teaching and learning.