Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor's Name

Stacy L. Frazier

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Valentina Bruk-Lee

Second Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Third Advisor's Name

Daniel M. Bagner

Third Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Maria Elena Villar

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

committee member


work-related well-being, after-school, adult-youth relationships, social capital, social support, mixed methods

Date of Defense



This study launches a program of research applying a social-ecological approach to understanding and promoting work-related well-being for after-school providers serving diverse youth in resource-restricted and urban communities. We build on evidence indicating capacity to meet job demands and resources (e.g., social support) as two prominent predictors of work-related well-being in schools; combined with previous research highlighting effective relationships with youth and fellow colleagues as critical work experiences for after-school staff. The current study examines effectiveness building close and positive adult-youth relationships and connectedness with colleagues as potential predictors of work-related well-being, including increased work engagement and decreased stress and burnout, among after-school providers in a collaborating multi-site middle-school age after-school program. Using a mixed method design, participating staff (n=34) completed a survey examining different aspects of effectiveness (i.e., comfort promoting youth social-emotional outcomes, closeness with youth, and conflict with youth), connectedness (i.e., social support and social capital measured via social network analysis), and work-related well-being (i.e., work engagement, burnout, and stress). A subset of staff (n=11) also completed a follow-up interview to gain a deeper understanding of providers’ experience of effectiveness, connectedness, and work-related well-being in after-school. Results highlighted mixed and nuanced associations between all three constructs. Effectiveness served as the most consistent predictor of work-related well-being across qualitative and quantitative data, but highlighted the emotional strain that can also come with close relationships with youth. Connectedness presented as a stressor in its absence, but also a buffer against stress in its presence. Effective communication, instrumental support, and bonding social capital presented the most salient aspects of connectedness in predicting both work-related well-being and effectiveness supporting youth. Thus, the current study provides preliminary evidence for the potential of effectiveness and connectedness as pathways for promoting work-related well-being for after-school providers.



Previously Published In

Ouellette, R. R., Frazier, S. L., Shernoff, E. S., Cappella, E., Mehta, T. G., Maríñez-Lora, A., Cua, G., & Atkins, M. S. (2018). Teacher Job Stress and Satisfaction in Urban Schools: Disentangling Individual-, Classroom-, and Organizational-Level Influences. Behavior therapy, 49(4), 494–508.

Ouellette, R. R., Goodman, A. C., Martinez-Pedraza, F., Moses, J. O., Cromer, K., Zhao, X., ... & Frazier, S. L. (2020). A systematic review of organizational and workforce interventions to improve the culture and climate of youth-service settings. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 47(5), 764-778.



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