Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
First Advisor's Name
First Advisor's Committee Title
Second Advisor's Name
Second Advisor's Committee Title
Third Advisor's Name
Third Advisor's Committee Title
Fourth Advisor's Name
Fourth Advisor's Committee Title
Fifth Advisor's Name
Jorge Riera Diaz
Fifth Advisor's Committee Title
metacognition, tip-of-the-tongue, feeling-of-knowing, confidence, general recognition theory, sensitivity vs. metacognition curve
Date of Defense
Tip-of-the-tongue states (TOT) and feeling-of-knowing judgments (FOK) are metacognitive experiences about the possibility of future retrieval of information when recall fails. Studies show that experiencing a TOT or a high FOK increases the possibility of correct retrieval of missing information, which demonstrates metacognitive sensitivity. However, evidence for metacognitive sensitivity of TOT and FOK mainly derives from measures that conflate metacognitive sensitivity with metacognitive bias. Moreover, no study has evaluated the influence of TOT and FOK judgments on the unbiased metacognitive sensitivity of other metacognitive experiences and judgments, in this case, confidence judgments.
In this study, I used general recognition theory (GRT) to provide a bias-free assessment of metacognitive sensitivity for TOT and FOK and to evaluate the influence of TOT and FOK on the metacognitive sensitivity of confidence judgments. In two experiments, I asked participants to perform a memory recall task. If recall failed, participants provided metacognitive judgments of TOT and FOK, memory recognition responses, and metacognitive judgements of confidence on those recognition responses. After collecting the behavioral data, I fit two different GRT models to the data to assess metacognitive sensitivity of TOT and FOK. Using estimated parameters of the models, I constructed two sensitivity vs. metacognition (SvM) curves, which represent sensitivity in the recognition task, as a function of strength of metacognitive experiences: an SvM curve for TOT and an SvM curve for FOK. In addition, to evaluate the influence of TOT and FOK on the metacognitive sensitivity of confidence judgments, I fit two different GRT models and constructed two additional SvM curves, which represents metacognitive sensitivity of confidence, as a function of strength of TOT and FOK judgments.
The results of the GRT-based analyses showed that experiencing TOT and a high FOK are associated with an increase in sensitivity in the memory recognition task and an increase in metacognitive sensitivity of confidence judgments. These results were the first bias-free indication of metacognitive sensitivity of TOT and FOK judgments and the first report of influence of TOT and FOK on metacognitive sensitivity of confidence judgments.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Pournaghdali, Ali, "Signal Detection Analyses of the Relation of Prospective and Retrospective Metacognitive Judgments" (2022). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 4941.
In Copyright. URI: http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).