Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Environmental Studies

First Advisor's Name

Krish Jayachandran

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Mahadev Bhat

Third Advisor's Name

Jeffery Onsted

Fourth Advisor's Name

Suzanne Koptur


honey bee, varroa destructor, neem, amitraz, organic, farm

Date of Defense



This thesis analyzes mixtures of neem oil and amitraz as alternative control for Varroa destructor, a major pest of Apis mellifera, under different agricultural settings. In organic and conventional farms, the different treatments were applied in colonies to determine impacts on mite loss, colony strength, and honey yield. The results demonstrated neem to have the least effective control on mite mortality, while the neem and amitraz mixture had the most. Furthermore, no long term impacts on queen fecundity and colony strength were noticed between treatments. However, queen fecundity and honey yield was significantly higher in sites with higher flower abundance and diversity, demonstrating higher colony strength in these sites. Further understanding of the relationship between apiculture and agricultural management is vital for conservation of pollinator health and associated habitats.





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