Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor's Name

John L. Volakis

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Elias A. Alwan

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Co-committee chair

Third Advisor's Name

Stavros V. Georgakopoulos

Third Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Shubhendu Bhardwaj

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Fifth Advisor's Name

Benjamin Boesl

Fifth Advisor's Committee Title

committee member


electromagnetics and photonics

Date of Defense



Radio frequency (RF) spectrum congestion is a major challenge for the growing need of wireless bandwidth. Notably, in 2015, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) auctioned just 65 MHz (a bandwidth smaller than that used for WiFi) for more than $40 billion, indicating the high value of the microwave spectrum. Current radios use one-half of their bandwidth resource for transmission, and the other half for reception. Therefore, by enabling radios to transmit and receive across their entire bandwidth allocation, spectral efficiency is doubled. Concurrently, data rates for wireless links also double. This technology leads to a new class of radios and RF frontends. Current full-duplex techniques resort to either time- or frequency-division duplexing (TDD and FDD respectively) to partition the transmit and receive functions across time and frequency, respectively, to avoid self-interference. But these approaches do not translate to spectral efficiency.

Simultaneous transmit and receive (STAR) radios must isolate the transmitter from the receiver to avoid self-interference (SI). This SI prevents reception and must therefore be cancelled. Self-interference may be cancelled with one or more stages involving the antenna, RF or analog circuits, or digital filters. With this in mind, the antenna stage is the most critical to reduce the SI level and avoid circuit saturation and total system failure.

This dissertation presents techniques for achieving STAR radios. The initial sections of the dissertation provide the general approach of stage to stage cancellation to achieve as much as 100 dB isolation between the receiver and transmitter. The subsequent chapters focus on different antennas to achieve strong transmit/receive isolation. As much as 35 dB isolation is shown using a new spiral antenna array with operation across a 2:1 bandwidth. Also, a new antenna feed is presented showing 42 dB isolation across a 250 MHz bandwidth. Reflections in the presence of a dynamic environment are also considered.





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