Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor's Name

Osama Mohammed

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Sundaraja S. Iyengar

Second Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Third Advisor's Name

Kemal Akkaya

Third Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Stavros V. Georgakopoulos

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Fifth Advisor's Name

Tarek Youssef

Fifth Advisor's Committee Title

committee member


Digital Twin, Cybersecurity, Microgrid, Distributed Control, Energy Management, Cloud Computing, Cyber Physical System, Power System Resiliency, Smart Grid, Networked Inverters

Date of Defense



Networked microgrids play a key role in constructing future active distribution networks for providing the power system with resiliency and reliability against catastrophic physical and cyber incidents. Motivated by the increasing penetration of renewable resources and energy storage systems in the distribution grids, utility companies are encouraged to unleash the capabilities of the distributed microgrid to work as virtual power plants that can support the power systems. The microgrids nature is transforming the grid and their control systems from centralized architecture into distributed architectures. The distributed networked microgrids introduced many benefits to the future smart grids, it created many challenges such as the absence of centric oversight, the lack of robustness against renewable uncertainty and vulnerability to cyberattacks. These challenges and issues imposed the necessities to transform the control system architecture form classical decision making to holistic, hierarchical multi-vision distributed smart decision making.

In this dissertation, a data-centric oversight layer is added on top of the energy cyber- physical system to collect the required information by the internet of things (IoT) technologies and provision it to the cloud virtual space. This layer has relatively unlimited computational and communication resources that can guide the distributed cyber system to secure, reliable, efficient and intelligent operation. By adding the data-informed model philosophy (Digital Twin) into this centric layer can answer real-time What-IF questions, enhance the control system resiliency, provide the control system with guidance toward the global optimal objective and provide situational and security awareness.

The dissertation extended the developed control system resiliency by providing multi- mode of operation according to the cyber system state. The distributed multi-agent control

system is designed to be security-aware without the centric oversight via developing distributed cyberattack observer that can detect and identify the attacked neighbors by extracting the cyber graph and the consensus control features and compare it with the healthy characteristics. Finally, the controller itself is armed with an independent mode of operation, which makes the controller work with the local information only to guarantee stable and optimal operation. The developed techniques and ideas we experimentally tested and evaluated on the FIU smart grid testbed.




Previously Published In

J1. Ahmed A. Saad; Faddel, S.; Mohammed, O. IoT-Based Digital Twin for Energy Cyber-Physical Systems: Design and Implementation. Energies 2020, 13, 4762.

J2. H. H. Eldeeb, A. Berzoy, Ahmed A. Saad, H. Zhao and O. A. Mohammed, ”Differential Mathematical Morphological Based On-line Diagnosis of Stator Inter-Turn Failures in Direct Torque Control Drive Systems,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, doi: 10.1109/TIA.2020.3019779.

J3. Ahmed A. Saad, S. Faddel, T. Youssef and O. Mohammed, ”On the Implementation of IoT-Based Digital Twin for Networked Microgrids Resiliency Against Cyber Attacks,” in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, doi: 10.1109/TSG.2020.3000958.

J4. S. Faddel, Ahmed A. Saad, M. E. Hariri and O. A. Mohammed, ”Coordination of Hybrid Energy Storage for Ship Power Systems With Pulsed Loads,” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 1136-1145, March-April 2020, doi: 10.1109/TIA.2019.2958293.

J5. Ebrahim, A.F.; Ahmed A. Saad; Mohammed, O. Smart Integration of a DC Microgrid: Enhancing the Power Quality Management of the Neighborhood Low-Voltage Distribution Network. Inventions 2019, 4, 25.

J6. Ahmed A. Saad, Samy Faddel, and Osama Mohammed. ”A secured distributed control system for future interconnected smart grids.” Applied Energy 243 (2019): 57-70.

J7. S. Faddel, Ahmed A. Saad, T. Youssef and O. Mohammed, ”Decentralized Control Algorithm for the Hybrid Energy Storage of Shipboard Power System,” in IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 720-731, March 2020, doi: 10.1109/JESTPE.2019.2899287.

J8. Ahmed A. Saad, Samy Faddel, Tarek Youssef, and Osama Mohammed. ”Small-signal model predictive control based resilient energy storage management strategy for all electric ship MVDC voltage stabilization.” Journal of Energy Storage 21 (2019): 370-382.

J9. Ahmed A. Saad, T. Youssef, A. T. Elsayed, A. Amin, O. H. Abdalla and O. Mohammed, ”Data-Centric Hierarchical Distributed Model Predictive Control for Smart Grid Energy Management,” in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 4086-4098, July 2019, doi: 10.1109/TII.2018.2883911.

J10. M. M. Eissa, W. M. Fayek, M. M. A. Hadhoud, M. M. Elmesalawy and A. A. Saad Shetaya, ”Frequency/voltage wide-area measurements over transmission control protocol/internet protocol communication network for generator trip identification concerning missed data,” in IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 290-300, February 2014, doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0207.


P1. Ahmed A. Saad, and Osama Mohammed. ”Energy Cyber-Physical System Digital Twin Playground.” U.S. Patent October, 2020. [Filled]

P2. Ahmed A. Saad, Samy Gamal Faddel Mohamed, and Osama Mohammed. ”Systems and methods for providing security in power systems.” U.S. Patent 10,686,810, issued June 16, 2020. [Awarded]

P3. Eldeeb, Hassan H., Alberto Berzoy, Ahmed A. Saad, and Osama Mohammed. ”Condition monitoring and fault detection in induction motors.” U.S. Patent 10,686,394, issued June 16, 2020. [Awarded]

Conference Papers

C1. T. Aljohani, Ahmed A. Saad and O. Mohammed, ”On the Real-Time Modeling of Voltage Drop and Grid Congestion Due to the Presence of Electric Vehicles on Residential Feeders,” 2020 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2020 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), Madrid, Spain, 2020, pp. 1-7, doi: 10.1109/EEEIC/ICPSEurope49358.2020.9160855.

C2. E. h. Margoum, H. Mharzi, S. Faddel, Ahmed A. Saad and O. Mohammed, ”Coordinated Control Scheme for Electric Vehicles Connected to Droop-Controlled MicroGrids,” 2019 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC), Detroit, MI, USA, 2019, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ITEC.2019.8790531.

C3. H. H. Eldeeb, A. Berzoy, Ahmed A. Saad and O. A. Mohammed, ”On-line Monitoring of Stator Inter-Turn Failures in DTC driven Asynchronous Motors using Mathematical Morphological Gradient,” 2019 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Anaheim, CA, USA, 2019, pp. 1018-1023, doi: 10.1109/APEC.2019.8721967.

C4. S. Faddel, M. E. Hariri, Ahmed A. Saad and O. Mohammed, ”Intelligent Power Management for the Hybrid Energy Storage of the Ship Power System,” 2019 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, USA, 2019, pp. 1-8, doi: 10.1109/IAS.2019.8911947.

C5. S. Faddel, Ahmed A. Saad and O. Mohammed, ”Decentralized Energy Management of Hybrid Energy Storage on MVDC Shipboard Power System,” 2018 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS), Portland, OR, 2018, pp. 1-7, doi: 10.1109/IAS.2018.8544604.

C6. Ahmed A. Saad, T. Youssef, A. M. Amin, O. H. Abdallah and O. Mohammed, ”Adaptive Predictive Energy Management Strategy for Integrating Intermittent Resources in Power Systems,” 2018 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS), Portland, OR, 2018, pp. 1-8, doi: 10.1109/IAS.2018.8544701.

C7. A. F. Ebrahim, A. A. S. Mohamed, Ahmed A. Saad and O. A. Mohammed, ”Vector Decoupling Control Design Based on Genetic Algorithm for a Residential Microgrid System for Future City Houses at Islanding Operation,” SoutheastCon 2018, St. Petersburg, FL, 2018, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/SECON.2018.8479013.

C8. A. A. Saad Shetaya, R. El-Azab, A. Amin and O. H. Abdalla, ”Flexibility Measurement of Power System Generation for Real-Time Applications Using Analytical Hierarchy Process,” 2018 IEEE Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech), Austin, TX, 2018, pp. 7-14, doi: 10.1109/GreenTech.2018.00011.

C9. A. A. Saad Shetaya, A. M. A. Amin and O. H. Abdalla, ”Model predictive control based power system operation planning of grid connected high share renewable energy,” 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), Cairo, 2017, pp. 1500-1504, doi: 10.1109/MEPCON.2017.8301381.

C10. A. A. Saad Shetaya, R. El-Azab, A. M. Amin and O. H. Abdalla, ”A multi-vision energy management strategy for smart grids using hierarchical distributed Model Predictive Control,” SoutheastCon 2017, Charlotte, NC, 2017, pp. 1-7, doi: 10.1109/SECON.2017.7925373.

C11. H. G. Svendsen, A. A. Saad Shetaya and K. Loudiyi, ”Integration of renewable energy and the benefit of storage from a grid and market perspective - results from Morocco and Egypt case studies,” 2016 International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), Marrakech, 2016, pp. 1164-1168, doi: 10.1109/IRSEC.2016.7984007.

C12. Ahmed A. Saad, El-Naggar, M.F. and ShehabEldin, E.H., 2012. Modeling and testing of multi-resolution morphological gradient distance relay algorithm. Energy Procedia, 14, pp.271-279



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