Evaluating Treatment for Trauma Bonding in a Sample of Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Single-Case Design Study
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
First Advisor's Name
Miriam Potocky, Ph.D.
First Advisor's Committee Title
Second Advisor's Name
Paul Stuart, Ph.D.
Second Advisor's Committee Title
Third Advisor's Name
Staci L. Morris, Psy.D.
Third Advisor's Committee Title
Fourth Advisor's Name
Karlene Cousins, Ph.D., J.D.
Fourth Advisor's Committee Title
Fifth Advisor's Name
Etiony Aldarondo, Ph.D.
Fifth Advisor's Committee Title
trauma bonding, Stockholm syndrome, intimate partner violence (IPV) domestic violence (DV), single-case research design, Transtheoretical Model of Change, Traumatic Incident Reduction, TIR, Trauma Bonding Protocol
Date of Defense
A great deal of scientific literature addresses the adverse biopsychosocial sequelae of survivors of Intimate Partner Violence/Domestic Violence and the resulting financial costs of Intimate Partner Violence/Domestic Violence to society. Less is known about which clinical interventions can best mitigate survivors’ symptoms, while enhancing their capacity to survive and ultimately leave the abusive relationship. This study examined the effectiveness of the Traumatic Incident Reduction and the Trauma Bonding Protocol interventions in mitigating symptoms of depression, anxiety, and trauma bonding, and in increasing safety behaviors and readiness to change in a sample of female survivors of Intimate Partner Violence. Outcome measures were the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Clinical Anxiety Scale, the Stockholm Syndrome Scale as a proxy for trauma bonding, the Safety Behavior Checklist, and the Domestic Violence Survivor Assessment, which measured participants’ readiness to change. Coercive Control and the Transtheoretical Model of Change provided a theoretical framework. Purposive sampling methods (venue-based and convenience sampling) were used to recruit and retain volunteer participants (N=24) who sought counseling services at two community-based mental health agencies in Miami-Dade County, Florida. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was employed. Participants were followed up to ten weeks. Data were analyzed by utilizing visual analysis which includes primarily looking at four characteristics of the data which relate to the magnitude of the change across phases and the rate of change across phases, and from which degree of change—whether improvement or deterioration—can be inferred. Results indicate that following participation in the Traumatic Incident Reduction and the Trauma Bonding Protocol interventions, participants’ depression, anxiety, and Stockholm syndrome scores did not decrease, and their safety-seeking behavior and readiness to change scores did not increase. Implications for social work practice and research are discussed.
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Carrington, Cherelle D., "Evaluating Treatment for Trauma Bonding in a Sample of Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Single-Case Design Study" (2021). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 4634.
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