Document Type



Doctor of Education (EdD)


Adult Education and Human Resource Development

First Advisor's Name

Dr. Thomas G. Reio, Jr.

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Dr. Haiying Long

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

Dr. Judith Bernier

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Dr. Hyejin Bang

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member


perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support, affective commitment, neuroticism, psychological contract, psychological contract incongruence, organizational commitment, organizational support theory

Date of Defense



The nonexperimental study (N = 279) investigated the moderating effect of the trait neuroticism and psychological contract incongruence on perceptions about the organization, supervisor, and level of affective commitment. Using Qualtrics, a survey battery was administered to supervisors who had completed leadership training at a single institution of higher education located in southern Florida, USA.

The findings of the present study provided new insights into the neuroticism scale items, suggesting that depression might be a hidden factor in more than half of the population. Another finding demonstrated that few individuals attribute a psychological contract breach to an honest misunderstanding. Nearly half of identified breaches were attributed to intentional reneging. These findings, from a population with positive, significant levels of POS, PSS, and AC, suggest that supervisors and organizations recognize that employees develop unspoken psychological contracts. Providing training for supervisors to improve two-way communication may mitigate unspoken expectations.






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