Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
First Advisor's Name
Ora Lea Strickland, PhD
First Advisor's Committee Title
Second Advisor's Name
Amy Paul-Ward, PhD
Second Advisor's Committee Title
Third Advisor's Name
Jean Hannan, PhD
Third Advisor's Committee Title
Fourth Advisor's Name
Deborah Sherman, PhD
Fourth Advisor's Committee Title
Fifth Advisor's Name
Asia Eaton, PhD
Fifth Advisor's Committee Title
Date of Defense
Background and Aims: High-risk sexual behaviors are more prevalent among female Veterans, than among women in the general population. Studies have demonstrated that this risk is associated with factors such as young age at enlistment into the military, history of sexual abuse, illicit drug use, multiple sex partners and history of military sexual trauma, inclusive of other forms of abuse. STIs and their consequences exact heavy financial burdens on the military Veterans’ services with millions of dollars spent treating STI-related illnesses, cognitive and functional disabilities, unplanned pregnancies, miscarriages and infertility. Despite the high prevalence of STIs in this population, there is a paucity of theory-guided research examining predictive factors of high risk sexual behaviors among them. No study has examined whether or not a hierarchical environment like the military impacts female Veterans’ sexual behaviors as they transition out of the military.
Purpose: To describe high-risk sexual behaviors and incidence of STIs in female military Veterans; and assess factors that may also predict high risk sex practices among them.
Methods: A descriptive, correlational design was utilized to obtain data from 221 female military Veterans in Florida. Measures included a demographic questionnaire, the Safer Sex Behavior Questionnaire, the Abuse Assessment Scale, the STD Knowledge Questionnaire, and the Social Dominance Orientation Scale. The study was guided by the Social Dominance Theory.
Results: Statistically significant difference was noted in Safer Sex Behavior (SSBQ) scores among people of different educational levels and races. There were also significant negative correlations between SSBQ scores, level of religiosity; and between STD Knowledge scores and level of religiosity. Women who were pregnant, economically dependent, and had high social obligations were at highest risk for STIs, with a prevalence rate of STIs almost 15% in the group.
Discussion: Screening for female Veterans must include abuse, economic dependence, social obligations, and level of religiosity.
Conclusions: This study has policy, education, and nursing implications, and lays the foundation for future comparative studies.
Fray, Beverly M., "Factors Predicting High Risk Sex Practices and Incidence of STIs among Women Veterans in Florida" (2020). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 4383.
APPENDIX B - Updated Demographic Questionnaire June 11, 2019.pdf (112 kB)
APPENDIX B-1 - FOR VA Revised Updated Demographic Questionnaire July 11, 2019.pdf (115 kB)
APPENDIX C - Safer Sex Behavior Questionnaire.pdf (66 kB)
APPENDIX D - SDO Scale for participants .pdf (75 kB)
APPENDIX E - STD Knowledge Questionnaire -Short Form .pdf (59 kB)
APPENDIX F - Abuse Assessment Tool Short Form .pdf (78 kB)
APPENDIX G - Flyer for Inviting Research Participants.pdf (71 kB)
APPENDIX H -FIU IRB APPROVAL - PROTOCOL NO.107085.pdf (145 kB)
APPENDIX I - Fray Informational Letter Department of Veterans Affairs - Updated July 8, 2019; Rev. March 29, 2019.pdf (47 kB)
APPENDIX J-1 - Revised Online Consent Form.pdf (108 kB)
APPENDIX K - VA IRB APPROVAL - 9406.01 Humans-Vets Waiver of Documentation and IC Apprv Ltr.pdf (109 kB)
APPENDIX K-1 - VA IRB APPROVAL NOTICE - HUMAN SUBJECTS APPROVAL MEMO Scan_11.pdf (78 kB)
APPENDIX H-1 - Strickland 18-0346_Adult_Online_ICF_092718.pdf (391 kB)
APPENDIX J - Updated Consent_English 2022-05-22.pdf (538 kB)
Available for download on Wednesday, March 16, 2022
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