Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor's Name

Okezi T Otovo

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Alexandra Cornelius

Second Advisor's Committee Title


Third Advisor's Name

Chantalle F. Verna

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Jean-Robert Cadely

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fifth Advisor's Name

Minkah Makalani

Fifth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member


Haitians, Black Internationalism, New Negro, Universal Negro Improvement Association, Afro-Francophone, African American, Pan-Africanism, Black Radicalism, African Diaspora, Black Atlantic, U.S. Occupation

Date of Defense



This project locates the transnational contributions of elite Haitians to the efforts to remake blackness and mitigate the racial subjugation of people of African descent between 1919 and 1937. The arguments forwarded here are founded on archival materials such as letters, newspapers, personal documents, and the reports of government agents. Through my engagements with these documents, at times reading against the grain, I explore the ways in which my actors directed the course of events and shaped the discourses of major organizations that sought to affect Pan-African solidarity and promote anti-colonialism. It locates their participation two major sites interwar black internationalism: Harlem, New York City and Paris France. I argue elite Haitian men were central actors in the major initiatives launched by people of African descent to redefine blackness away from racist tropes and build a global community of people of African descent committed to abating racial and colonial subjugation.





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