Document Type



Doctor of Education (EdD)


Adult Education and Human Resource Development

First Advisor's Name

Thomas Reio

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Jinlin Zhao

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

Haiying Long

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Hyejin Bang

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member


leadership, organizational justice, job satisfaction

Date of Defense



This nonexperimental, quantitative study (N = 283) is to investigate the relationship between organizational justice, job satisfaction, and expatriate leadership performance. This study, undergirded by both social exchange (Blau, 1964) and transformational leadership theory (Bass & Avolio, 1990). The target population of this study was local employees who work with expatriate managers in the hospitality industry in Mainland China. 64% (n = 182) of the sample was female and 36% (n = 101) of the sample was male participated in this study. The research hypotheses were tested using correlational, regression analyses and structural equation modeling.

The results of this study shows that there is a positive relationship between employee job satisfaction and employees’ perceptions of the expatriate leader’s job performance. Also, it shows there was a positive relationship between organizational justice and employee job satisfaction. Furthermore, it confirmed that relationship between job satisfaction and leadership performance was mediated by organizational justice.

The results of this study further understandings of social exchange theory and transformational leadership in a cross-cultural leadership context. It provides evidence of the direction and magnitude of relationships between organizational justice, job satisfaction and expatriate leadership performance. In addition, the results of this research help hospitality industry leaders face the reality of how local employees perceive their performance, and play a vital role to identify possible opportunities and shortcomings in HRD policies and procedures. HRD professionals can focus on creating developmental interventions that promote organizational justice, employee job satisfaction, and encourage a positive psychological climate.





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