Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor's Name

Eric Dwyer

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Sarah Mathews

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee co chair

Third Advisor's Name

Benjamin Baez

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

James Burns

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member


Curriculum and instruction, Education

Date of Defense



This dissertation chronicled a multifaceted study utilizing the Historical, Philosophical, Societal and a Takeaway (HPST) Framework; an organizational tool used for document analysis. Utilizing a case study format, this research unpacked how a charter school teacher used HPST within her own ninth grade Advanced Placement World History class. As a starting point, I offered an account of my own autobiographical narrative, chronicling through my attempt at ethnographic writing and infused with scholarly literature as needed. Consequently, this personal narrative was coupled with my professional experiences within the Social Studies field. Upon this foundation, this study explored the use of the HPST Framework for analyzing narratives and its complexities beyond the textbook. The intent of HPST was to help students analyze the interaction of the author, the text, and the reader. The research was geared to see to what degree students might draw out historical, philosophic, and socio-cultural frames reflected as complicated conversations. In particular, I was interested in examining U.S. students’ portrayals of marginalized groups within a context of world history and how these roles changed after students used the HPST Framework to analyze narrative passages.

The study uncovered that HPST could add to literature by prioritizing historical narratives to convey information through stories which humanize the people involved in significant world events. For this teacher, HPST served as a platform for student discussion because it took the existing classroom discourse about philosophy, politics, society, or power and cognitively arranged it in two levels for students to engage with the text and the author. This was followed by an analytical layer to enhance comprehension and critical thinking. With that said, students could easily identify the H and S; however, challenges were found in their understanding of the P. Moreover, HPST allowed students to engage in discovery learning instead of prescribed analysis by the teacher. Additionally, discussions were offered as to how this teacher with limited time or a restricted curriculum could modify HPST and still use it. Lastly, discourses were given as to how this educator used narratives in the past and how her teaching changed because of the HPST.





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