Document Type



Doctor of Education (EdD)


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor's Name

Charles Bleiker

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Laura Dinehart

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

Barbara King

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Thomas Reio

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member


Early Childhood, Mathematics, Number Writing, School Readiness

Date of Defense



The purpose of this study was to understand how number writing in a class of low-income, pre-kindergarten children (N = 15) developed over the course of a school year, and to see what role that development played in their overall math readiness. This study used a mixed-methods approach. The target class was explicitly taught number writing as part of an early math intervention. Scores on a number writing inventory, and two math readiness assessments (Number Knowledge assessment, State of Florida VPK Assessment) were compared at the end of the year, both within the intervention group, and with a matched comparison group who did not participate in the intervention. The qualitative findings revealed that the characteristics necessary for preschool children to successfully write their numbers included: fine motor skills, cardinal and ordinal number knowledge, number symbol recognition, sensory tactile memory, and visual-spatial skills. Children demonstrated different paths and rates of success, but all made significant gains in their number writing abilities, especially when compared to those who did not receive the intervention. The quantitative findings confirmed that the children in the intervention outperformed those in the comparison group on number writing and number knowledge measures and revealed that number writing is predictive of early math knowledge overall, both on an individual and group level. This suggests that number writing is essential to overall math readiness and is a skill that can and should be taught. These findings further suggest that number writing is both a reliable indicator of overall early math knowledge, and an important driver of a young child’s mathematical thinking.





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