Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Environmental Studies

First Advisor's Name

Krishnaswamy Jayachandran

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Kateel Shetty

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Third Advisor's Name

Amir Khoddamzadeh

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member


Sustainability, Sustainable Agriculture, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, AMF, Rhizobium, Inoculation, Dual Inoculation, Co-Inoculation, Salinity, Salinization, Salt Stress, Plant Growth, Plant Stress, Glomalin, Glomalini-related Soil Protein

Date of Defense



Groundwater salinization from saltwater intrusion threatens Southeastern Florida’s commercially important snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production because of the crop’s low salt-tolerance threshold. The present study was carried out to determine if co-inoculating salt-stressed snap beans with beneficial microbial symbionts (i.e., Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) can mitigate growth reductions. Additionally, the study also assessed whether co-inoculation had an effect on the production of glomalin, a protein secreted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that improves soil aggregation. Snap beans were inoculated (-AMF/-Rhizobium, +AMF/-Rhizobium, +AMF/+Rhizobium) and irrigated with varying salinity levels (0.6, 1.0, 2.0 dS m-1). Results indicate that co-inoculation had a synergetic effect on salt-stressed snap beans to a certain degree. Co-inoculation alleviated chlorosis effects on salt-stressed snap beans by increasing leaf chlorophyll concentration. Additionally, co-inoculation had a minor inhibitory effect on glomalin production regardless of salinity treatment. This study expands knowledge on sustainable practices aimed in improving salt-thresholds of salt-sensitive crops.