The Relationship Between Aerobic Fitness, Gross and Fine Motor Skills, and Academic Achievement Among First Grade Students in Urban Schools and the Role the Relative Age Effect may have on These Variables
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Curriculum and Instruction
First Advisor's Name
First Advisor's Committee Title
Second Advisor's Name
Thomas G. Reio Jr.
Second Advisor's Committee Title
Third Advisor's Name
Third Advisor's Committee Title
Fourth Advisor's Name
Fourth Advisor's Committee Title
Curriculum and Instruction, Education
Date of Defense
This non-experimental design, cross-sectional and retrospective study (N=79) examined the relationship among aerobic fitness, gross motor skills, fine motor skills and academic achievement; aerobic fitness and reaction time; relative age effect and aerobic fitness, gross motor skills, and academic achievement. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2), Yo-Yo Aerobic Test, Diery Liewald Reaction Time Task, and Stanford Achievement Test 10 were administered to heterogeneous, non-randomized, first grade students. Hypotheses were examined using correlational analysis and independent T-test analysis.
The results indicated that aerobic fitness and academic achievement were not correlated with mathematics scores, not reading scores. Regarding gross motor skills and their correlation to academic achievement, only manual dexterity and bilateral coordination were statistically significant with academic achievement. On the other hand, all fine motor skills correlated with academic achievement. When analyzing reaction time and aerobic fitness, only simple reaction time correlated with aerobic fitness.
With regards to the relative age effect and aerobic fitness, no relationship was identified. However, a relative age effect was identified in the gross motor subcategories of upper limb coordination, bilateral coordination, and strength. Furthermore, there was a relative age effect observed with academic achievement. When taking gender into account, males demonstrated a higher mean difference in several subcategories of gross motor skills, specifically, upper limb coordination, manual coordination, body coordination and strength and agility. In addition, there was no group mean difference between males and females in fine motor skills. Lastly, with regards to handedness and footedness, right handedness demonstrated a relationship with the gross motor skill subcategories of upper limb coordination, manual coordination, running speed and agility, strength and strength and agility. However, footedness did not reveal a relationship with gross motor skills.
Pelaez, Alberto, "The Relationship Between Aerobic Fitness, Gross and Fine Motor Skills, and Academic Achievement Among First Grade Students in Urban Schools and the Role the Relative Age Effect may have on These Variables" (2019). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 4062.
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