Doctor of Education (EdD)
Adult Education and Human Resource Development
First Advisor's Name
Dr. Thomas Reio
First Advisor's Committee Title
Second Advisor's Name
Dr. Haiying Long
Second Advisor's Committee Title
Third Advisor's Name
Dr. Judith Bernier
Third Advisor's Committee Title
Fourth Advisor's Name
Dr. Teresa Lucas
Fourth Advisor's Committee Title
Organizational conflict, Problem-solving, Paradoxical problem-solving, Teamwork
Date of Defense
This mixed method research was used to develop and validate an adapted survey that incorporates the paradoxical problem-solving concept under the context of social conflict theory, and to provide employees and employers more creative techniques to manage organizational conflict. One aspect of social conflict theory, problem-solving theory, focused on how individuals respond when confronted with unfamiliar tasks (Newell, Shaw & Simon, 1958a).
A concurrent mixed methods design was used to determine validity and reliability evidence. This study consisted of four phases. Phase one was a qualitative phase that utilized 11 experts, examining for validity evidence of test content. Phase two consisted of two stages (a) 3-person focus group pilot study which was qualitative, and (b) pilot study survey (N= 52) which was quantitative. The 3-person focus group pilot study examined validity evidence based on response processes, and the pilot survey examined for reliability evidence and validity evidence based on internal structure. Phase three was a qualitative phase that utilized 6 persons and examined for validity evidence based on response processes. The fourth phase was a quantitative phase that established validity evidence based on internal structure and reliability evidence with Cronbach’s alpha.
Exploratory factor analysis was used on data gathered from 300 participants. Six factors were generated, with the first construct (Problem-Solving Confidence) loading strongly on the first and second factors; the second construct (Approach-Avoidance Style) loading on the fourth, fifth and sixth factors, and the third construct (Personal Control) loading strongly on the third factor. Cronbach’s alpha was used to determine reliability evidence on the instrument; α = .849. Reliability for each of the three constructs was examined using Cronbach’s alpha: .845 for Problem-Solving Confidence (10 items), .789 for Approach-Avoidance Style (10 items), and .729 for Personal Control (5 items).
The instrument created in this study, the Paradoxical Problem-Solving Inventory, was developed to have organizations look at an alternative method instead of the traditional ADRs used. The instrument can provide human resource practitioners and researchers the tool that is necessary when managing organizational conflict, and the opportunity to transcend from problems into a learning-oriented approach.
Hadeed, Salma A., "The Validity and Reliability of an Adapted Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI): The Exploration of Paradoxical Problem-Solving as a Means to Manage Organizational Conflict" (2019). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 4059.
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