Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor's Name

Maria Asuncion Gomez

First Advisor's Committee Title

Commitee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Santiago Juan Navarro

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Third Advisor's Name

Nicola Gavioli

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Ana Maria Bidegain

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member


masculinidad, nacion, gender, Vargas Llosa, Goytisolo, Juan Goytisolo, masculinidad alternativa, siglo XX, masculinity, 20th century, Latin American Literature, Spanish Literature

Date of Defense



This dissertation focuses on the construction of national discourse from a gender perspective and examines how the concepts of nation and masculinity intersect each other in the works of Spanish writer Juan Goytisolo (1931-2017) and Peruvian Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa (1936). This study sheds light on how fiction and real life events are interconnected in some of the novels and autobiographical works of both authors. The works analysed include: Señas de identidad (1966), Reivindicación del conde don Julián (1970), Juan sin tierra (1975), Coto vedado (1985), and Carajicomedia (2000) by Goytisolo, as well as La ciudad y los perros (1963), La tía Julia y el escribidor (1977), El pez en el agua (1993), and El sueño del celta (2010) by Vargas Llosa.

Gender and queer theory inform the analysis of a hegemonic heterosexual model of masculinity prevalent in the societies the authors narrate. State-run institutions —namely schools, family, religion, and the military— sanction, propagate, and ensure a model of masculinity with a faithful adherence to a patriarchal script. This uncompromising and rigid discourse predictively leads to fissures of rebellion, as the state approved model of heteronormative masculinity slowly cracks from the inside out. In this investigation, we explore how some individuals are able to rise up from the fringes and eventually break free. In breaking free, they also undermine the structural integrity of the crumbling state control system. Sometimes this rebel attitude is punished and, most of the time, it is even dismissed by power. In this study, we also explore alternative models of masculinity, which at times suffer the consequences of not fitting with the hegemonic type of manhood that heteronormative society accepts.





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