Document Type



Environmental Studies

First Advisor's Name

Joel T. Heinen

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

David B. Bray

Third Advisor's Name

Hong Liu


CITES, Policy Gap Analysis, Policy Implementation, Enforcement of Wildlife policy, Illegal Wildlife Trade in Nepal, Legal Wildlife Trade in Nepal

Date of Defense



This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insight into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, I used key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, I used Najman’s (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations’ support for building public and political salience is imperative.





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