Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
First Advisor's Name
Nasar U. Ahmed
First Advisor's Committee Title
Second Advisor's Name
Mary Jo Trepka
Second Advisor's Committee Title
Third Advisor's Name
Third Advisor's Committee Title
Fourth Advisor's Name
Fourth Advisor's Committee Title
Fifth Advisor's Name
Fifth Advisor's Committee Title
cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, pap test, pap smear, physician recommendation
Date of Defense
In 2015, there were 257,524 women with cervical cancer (CC) in the United States (U.S.). CC is preventable; screening detects early-stage cancer when treatment is most successful. This study aimed to identify predictors for CC screening adherence among U.S. women, describe predictors for screening adherence by marital status, and examine physician recommendation for CC screening and adherence to those recommendations. Predictors were grouped as demographic, acculturation, access to care, chronic conditions, and health behaviors. Descriptive analyses were performed on a sample of 10,667 women from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey, and multiple logistic regression models determined predictors of CC screening adherence, physician recommendations, and adherence to physician recommendations.
Overall, 81.7% (95%CI=80.7-82.7%) of U.S. women adhered to CC screening guidelines. Adherence declined with increasing age after 39 years old. Never married women (adjusted odds ratio[aOR]=0.67, CI=0.56-0.79) or current smokers (aOR=0.70, CI=0.59-0.84) had lower odds, while college-educated women had greater odds (aOR=1.38, CI=1.14-1.67) of CC screening adherence.
Among unmarried women, 78.6% adhered to CC screening. Unmarried women who were unemployed (aOR=0.48, CI=0.38-0.62), had no physician visits (aOR=0.58, CI=0.40-0.85), no usual source of care (aOR=0.67, CI=0.50-0.89), never heard of HPV (aOR=0.59, CI=0.46-0.76), never received HPV vaccine (aOR=0.50, CI=0.34-0.75), no birth control use (aOR=0.33, CI=0.23-0.47), no flu shot (aOR=0.62, CI=0.48-0.80), and perceived low breast cancer risk (aOR=0.66, CI=0.47-0.92) had lower odds of adherence.
Among women with a physician, 55.6% received screening recommendations. Race/ethnicity, access to care, HPV knowledge and vaccine receipt, age when first child was born, and flu shot were significant predictors of physician recommendation for CC screening. Significant predictors of adherence to physician recommendation included education, employment, English proficiency, outpatient clinic visits, usual source of care, age when first child was born, birth control, alcohol use, smoking status, flu shot, and health status.
Based on our results, two levels of intervention should be explored. First, targeted interventions are needed for women who are unmarried, have low socio-economic status, and limited access to care to reduce cervical cancer risk. Second, interventions for physicians to increase screening recommendations to all eligible women are needed to improve national screening rates.
Samuel, Vincy, "Predictors of Cervical Cancer Screening and Physician Recommendations among Women in the United States using Current Screening Guidelines" (2018). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 3901.
Available for download on Thursday, October 15, 2020
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