Flourescence-enhanced optical imaging on 3-D phantoms using a hand-held probe based frequency-domain intensified charge coupled devide (ICCD) optical imager

Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (Medical Science)


Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor's Name

Anuradha Godavarty

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

George Dulikravich

Third Advisor's Name

Nikolaos Tsoukias

Fourth Advisor's Name

Wei-Chiang Lin

Fifth Advisor's Name

Malek Adjouadi

Date of Defense



Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging is an emerging non-invasive and non-ionizing modality towards breast cancer diagnosis. Various optical imaging systems are currently available, although most of them are limited by bulky instrumentation, or their inability to flexibly image different tissue volumes and shapes. Hand-held based optical imaging systems are a recent development for its improved portability, but are currently limited only to surface mapping.

Herein, a novel optical imager, consisting primarily of a hand-held probe and a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) detector, is developed towards both surface and tomographic breast imaging. The unique features of this hand-held probe based optical imager are its ability to; (i) image large tissue areas (5x10 sq. cm) in a single scan, (ii) reduce overall imaging time using a unique measurement geometry, and (iii) perform tomographic imaging for tumor three-dimensional (3-D) localization.

Frequency-domain based experimental phantom studies have been performed on slab geometries (650 ml) under different target depths (1-2.5 cm), target volumes (0.45, 0.23 and 0.10 cc), fluorescence absorption contrast ratios (1:0, 1000:1 to 5:1), and number of targets (up to 3), using Indocyanine Green (ICG) as fluorescence contrast agents. An approximate extended Kalman filter based inverse algorithm has been adapted towards 3-D tomographic reconstructions.

Single fluorescence target(s) was reconstructed when located: (i) upto 2.5 cm deep (at 1:0 contrast ratio) and 1.5 cm deep (upto 10:1 contrast ratio) for 0.45 cc-target; and (ii) 1.5 cm deep for target as small as 0.10 cc at 1:0 contrast ratio. In the case of multiple targets, two targets as close as 0.7 cm were tomographically resolved when located 1.5 cm deep. It was observed that performing multi-projection (here dual) based tomographic imaging using a priori target information from surface images. Improved the target depth recovery over using single projection based imaging. From a total of 98 experimental phantom studies, the sensitivity and specificity of the imager was estimated as 81-86% and 43-50%, respectively. With 3-D tomographic imaging successfully demonstrated for the first time using a hand-held based optical imager, the clinical translation of this technology is promising upon further experimental validation from in-vitro and in-vivo studies.



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