Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (Medical Science)


Dietetics and Nutrition

First Advisor's Name

Fatma G. Huffman

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Adriana Campa

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Third Advisor's Name

Tan Li

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Juan P. Liuzzi

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member


Vitamin D, diabetes, kidney disease, blood pressure, Hispanics, African Americans

Date of Defense



Serum vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and elevated blood pressure are important health concerns especially among minorities with type 2 diabetes. The effect of vitamin D3 supplementation (cholecalciferol) at 6,000 IU/day (d) vs. 4,000 IU/d on kidney function and cardiovascular disease markers among Hispanics and African Americans with type 2 diabetes and hypovitaminosis D (/ml) was evaluated. Subjects (n=63) were recruited from two clinics in Miami-Dade County, FL. Fasting venous blood and fresh, single-voided first morning urine samples were collected from each participant by a certified phlebotomist and analyzed by Solstas Lab Partners, Davie, FL. Linear mixed models were used to compare the interaction between time and intervention. Least Significant Difference (LSD) comparisons were used to detect significant differences within and between 4,000 IU/d and 6,000 IU/d groups from baseline, 3 and 6 months. In the 4,000 IU/d and 6,000 IU/d groups, a significant increase in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were observed from baseline [(19.9±1.1 ng/mL) and (21.4±1.3 ng/mL)] to 3 months [(36.1±2.2 ng/mL, p3 longer than 6 months may be needed to determine sustained long term effects in kidney and cardiovascular disease markers. Further research could provide more information for translation of these findings into recommendations for individuals with CKD, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation as complementary therapy for CKD and blood pressure in minority and other ethnic groups needs further investigation in larger and longer duration randomized controlled trials.






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