Document Type



Doctor of Education (EdD)


Exceptional Student Education

First Advisor's Name

Elizabeth D Cramer

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Linda Blanton

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Third Advisor's Name

Barbara King

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Haiying Long

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fifth Advisor's Name

Mary Little


cultural responsive teaching, algebra, students with specific learning disabilities, achievement gap

Date of Defense



As the United States (U.S.) population continues to change and become racially/ethnically, culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse, so does the population in public schools (Institute of Education Sciences, 2010). Additionally, the number of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students has been overrepresented in the subgroup of students with learning disabilities (SLD) (Artiles & Ortiz, 2002; Kalynpur & Harry, 2012; Klingner & Harry, 2014). Therefore, there is a need to adapt the curriculum and pedagogy to teach the growing number of diverse students in public schools. The results of national assessments show that students of color have lagged behind their White counterparts in mathematics achievement over the years (Cortes, Goodman, & Nomi, 2013). Despite the push to remediate this problem, teachers continue to use ineffective teacher-led practices and the achievement gap persists across public schools (Williams, 2011).

The use of cultural responsive teaching (CRT) among CLD students is promising (Santamaria, 2009). However, there is need to investigate the use of these practices in Algebra I courses with CLD students with SLD.

The present 17-week pre-post study compared student achievement in Algebra I courses between two groups of CLD students with SLD (N=63). These groups were (a) 31 students who received CRT (treatment group) by teachers who received CRT training and (b) 32 students who received instruction by teachers who did not receive CRT training (control group). There are significant differences between the treatment and the control group on the CLD students with SLD Algebra I Mid-Year Assessment (MYA) and the students’ Mathematics Self-Efficacy scores (MSES). The teachers’ level of cultural consciousness had an insignificant covariance on the Algebra I MYA, yet the teachers’ observations and their cultural responsive self-assessment had a direct effect on the Algebra I MYA. Additionally, there was not significant interaction between MSES and TCS on the students’ Algebra I MYA. The results of the study suggest that the use of CRT is a promising practice to improve CLD students’ with SLD Algebra I achievement and perhaps close the math achievement gap.





Rights Statement

Rights Statement

In Copyright. URI:
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).