Optimum Distribution System Architectures for Efficient Operation of Hybrid AC/DC Power Systems Involving Energy Storage and Pulsed Loads
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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W. Kinzy Jones
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After more than a century of the ultimate dominance of AC in distribution systems, DC distribution is being re-considered. However, the advantages of AC systems cannot be omitted. This is mainly due to the cheap and efficient means of generation provided by the synchronous AC machines and voltage stepping up/down allowed by the AC transformers. As an intermediate solution, hybrid AC/DC distribution systems or microgrids are proposed. This hybridization of distribution systems, incorporation of heterogeneous mix of energy sources, and introducing Pulsed Power Loads (PPL) together add more complications and challenges to the design problem of distribution systems. In this dissertation, a comprehensive multi-objective optimization approach is presented to determine the optimal design of the AC/DC distribution system architecture. The mathematical formulation of a multi-objective optimal power flow problem based on the sequential power flow method and the Pareto concept is developed and discussed. The outcome of this approach is to answer the following questions: 1) the optimal size and location of energy storage (ES) in the AC/DC distribution system, 2) optimal location of the PPLs, 3) optimal point of common coupling (PCC) between the AC and DC sides of the network, and 4) optimal network connectivity. These parameters are to be optimized to design a distribution architecture that supplies the PPLs, while fulfilling the safe operation constraints and the related standard limitations. The optimization problem is NP-hard, mixed integer and combinatorial with nonlinear constraints. Four objectives are involved in the problem: minimizing the voltage deviation (ΔV), minimizing frequency deviation (Δf), minimizing the active power losses in the distribution system and minimizing the energy storage weight. The last objective is considered in the context of ship power systems, where the equipment’s weight and size are restricted.
The utilization of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS) in PPL applications is investigated. The design, hardware implementation and performance evaluation of an advanced – low cost Modular Energy Storage regulator (MESR) to efficiently integrate ES to the DC bus are depicted. MESR provides a set of unique features: 1) It is capable of controlling each individual unit within a series/parallel array (i.e. each single unit can be treated, controlled and monitored separately from the others), 2) It is able to charge some units within an ES array while other units continue to serve the load, 3) Balance the SoC without the need for power electronic converters, and 4) It is able to electrically disconnect a unit and allow the operator to perform the required maintenance or replacement without affecting the performance of the whole array.
A low speed flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) is designed and implemented to be used as an energy reservoir in PPL applications. The system was based on a separately excited DC machine and a bi-directional Buck-Boost converter as the driver to control the charging/discharging of the flywheel. Stable control loops were designed to charge the FESS off the pulse and discharge on the pulse. All the developments in this dissertation were experimentally verified at the Smart Grid Testbed.
Elsayed, Ahmed T., "Optimum Distribution System Architectures for Efficient Operation of Hybrid AC/DC Power Systems Involving Energy Storage and Pulsed Loads" (2016). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 3005.
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