Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor's Name

Yong X. Tao

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Ali Ebadian

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

Michael Sukop

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Yiding Cao

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member


suspension flow, numerical simulation, lattice Boltzmann method, phase change material, heat transfer

Date of Defense



The introduction of phase change material fluid and nanofluid in micro-channel heat sink design can significantly increase the cooling capacity of the heat sink because of the unique features of these two kinds of fluids. To better assist the design of a high performance micro-channel heat sink using phase change fluid and nanofluid, the heat transfer enhancement mechanism behind the flow with such fluids must be completely understood. A detailed parametric study is conducted to further investigate the heat transfer enhancement of the phase change material particle suspension flow, by using the two-phase non-thermal-equilibrium model developed by Hao and Tao (2004). The parametric study is conducted under normal conditions with Reynolds numbers of Re=600-900 and phase change material particle concentrations ¡Ü0.25 , as well as extreme conditions of very low Reynolds numbers (Re < 50) and high phase change material particle concentration (0.5-0.7) slurry flow. By using the two newly-defined parameters, named effectiveness factor and performance index, respectively, it is found that there exists an optimal relation between the channel design parameters, particle volume fraction, Reynolds number, and the wall heat flux. The influence of the particle volume fraction, particle size, and the particle viscosity, to the phase change material suspension flow, are investigated and discussed. The model was validated by available experimental data. The conclusions will assist designers in making their decisions that relate to the design or selection of a micro-pump suitable for micro or mini scale heat transfer devices. To understand the heat transfer enhancement mechanism of the nanofluid flow from the particle level, the lattice Boltzmann method is used because of its mesoscopic feature and its many numerical advantages. By using a two-component lattice Boltzmann model, the heat transfer enhancement of the nanofluid is analyzed, through incorporating the different forces acting on the nanoparticles to the two-component lattice Boltzmann model. It is found that the nanofluid has better heat transfer enhancement at low Reynolds numbers, and the Brownian motion effect of the nanoparticles will be weakened by the increase of flow speed.





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