Label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy-linked immunosensor assay (SLISA) for environmental surveillance
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
First Advisor's Name
Anthony J. McGoron
First Advisor's Committee Title
Second Advisor's Name
Second Advisor's Committee Title
Third Advisor's Name
Third Advisor's Committee Title
Fourth Advisor's Name
Fourth Advisor's Committee Title
Fifth Advisor's Name
Walter M. Goldberg
Fifth Advisor's Committee Title
surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Immunosensor, chemical toxins, cell-based biosensor, yeast, protein biomarkers, silver nanoparticles, SLISA, ELISA
Date of Defense
The contamination of the environment, accidental or intentional, in particular with chemical toxins such as industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents has increased public fear. There is a critical requirement for the continuous detection of toxins present at very low levels in the environment. Indeed, some ultra-sensitive analytical techniques already exist, for example chromatography and mass spectroscopy, which are approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the detection of toxins. However, these techniques are limited to the detection of known toxins. Cellular expression of genomic and proteomic biomarkers in response to toxins allows monitoring of known as well as unknown toxins using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme Linked Immunosensor Assays. However, these molecular assays allow only the endpoint (extracellular) detection and use labels such as fluorometric, colorimetric and radioactive, which increase chances of uncertainty in detection. Additionally, they are time, labor and cost intensive. These technical limitations are unfavorable towards the development of a biosensor technology for continuous detection of toxins. Federal agencies including the Departments of Homeland Security, Agriculture, Defense and others have urged the development of a detect-to-protect class of advanced biosensors, which enable environmental surveillance of toxins in resource-limited settings.
In this study a Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) immunosensor, aka a SERS-linked immunosensor assay (SLISA), has been developed. Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were used to design a flexible SERS immunosensor. The SLISA proof-of-concept biosensor was validated by the measurement of a dose dependent expression of RAD54 and HSP70 proteins in response to H2O2 and UV. A prototype microchip, best suited for SERS acquisition, was fabricated using an on-chip SLISA to detect RAD54 expression in response to H2O2. A dose-response relationship between H2O2 and RAD54 is established and correlated with EPA databases, which are established for human health risk assessment in the events of chemical exposure. SLISA outperformed ELISA by allowing RISE (rapid, inexpensive, simple and effective) detection of proteins within 2 hours and 3 steps. It did not require any label and provided qualitative information on antigen-antibody binding. SLISA can easily be translated to a portable assay using a handheld Raman spectrometer and it can be used in resource-limited settings. Additionally, this is the first report to deliver Ag NPs using TATHA2, a fusogenic peptide with cell permeability and endosomal rupture release properties, for rapid and high levels of Ag NPs uptake into yeast without significant toxicity, prerequisites for the development of the first intracellular SERS immunosensor.
bhardwaj, vinay, "Label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy-linked immunosensor assay (SLISA) for environmental surveillance" (2015). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 2321.
Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment Commons, Biochemical and Biomolecular Engineering Commons, Bioimaging and Biomedical Optics Commons, Biological Engineering Commons, Biomaterials Commons, Biomedical Devices and Instrumentation Commons, Biotechnology Commons, Environmental Engineering Commons, Environmental Health Commons, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Commons, Nanomedicine Commons, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Commons, Toxicology Commons
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