Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Dietetics and Nutrition

First Advisor's Name

Adriana Campa

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Marianna K. Baum

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

Juan P. Liuzzi

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Florence George

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member


Caffeine, HIV, CD4, Viral load, Sleep, Anxiety, Macronutrients, Micronutrients

Date of Defense



Miami-Dade County has approximately 27,000 people living with HIV (PLWH), and the highest HIV incidence in the nation. PLWH have reported several types of sleep disturbances. Caffeine is an anorexic and lipolytic stimulant that may adversely affect sleep patterns, dietary intakes and body composition. High caffeine consumption (>250 mg. per day or the equivalent of >4 cups of brewed coffee) may also affect general functionality, adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and HIV care. This study assess the relationship of high caffeine intake with markers of disease progression, sleep quality, insomnia, anxiety, nutritional intakes and body composition.

A convenience sample of 130 PLWH on stable ART were recruited from the Miami Adult Studies on HIV (MASH) cohort, and followed for three months. After consenting, questionnaires on Modified Caffeine Consumption (MCCQ), Pittsburg Insomnia Rating Scale (PIRS), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), socio-demographics, drug and medication use were completed. CD4 count, HIV viral load, anthropometries, and body composition measures were obtained.

Mean age was 47.89±6.37 years, 60.8% were male and 75.4% were African-Americans. Mean caffeine intake at baseline was 337.63 ± 304.97 mg/day (Range: 0-1498 mg/day) and did not change significantly at 3 months. In linear regression, high caffeine consumption was associated with higher CD4 cell count (β=1.532, P=0.049), lower HIV viral load (β=-1.067, P=0.048), higher global PIRS (β=1.776, P=0.046), global PSQI (β=2.587, P=0.038), and GAD-7 scores (β=1.674, P=0.027), and with lower fat mass (β=-0.994, P=0.042), energy intakes (β=-1.643, P=0.042) and fat consumption (β=-1.902, P=0.044), adjusting for relevant socioeconomic and disease progression variables. Over three months, these associations remained significant. The association of high caffeine with lower BMI weakened when excluding users of other anorexic and stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine, suggesting that caffeine in combination, but not alone, may worsen their action. In summary, high caffeine consumption was associated with better measures of disease progression; but was also detrimental on sleep quality, nutritional intakes, BMI and body composition and associated with insomnia and anxiety. Large scale studies for longer time are needed to elucidate the contribution of caffeine to the well-being of PLWH.





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