Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Materials Science and Engineering

First Advisor's Name

Chunlei Wang

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Jiuhua Chen

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Co-Committee Chair

Third Advisor's Name

Chenzhong Li

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Norman Munroe

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fifth Advisor's Name

Xiangyang Zhou

Fifth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member


C-MEMS, biofuel cells, graphene, enzyme, finite element analysis

Date of Defense



Miniaturized, self-sufficient bioelectronics powered by unconventional micropower may lead to a new generation of implantable, wireless, minimally invasive medical devices, such as pacemakers, defibrillators, drug-delivering pumps, sensor transmitters, and neurostimulators. Studies have shown that micro-enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) are among the most intuitive candidates for in vivo micropower.

In the fisrt part of this thesis, the prototype design of an EBFC chip, having 3D intedigitated microelectrode arrays was proposed to obtain an optimum design of 3D microelectrode arrays for carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) based EBFCs. A detailed modeling solving partial differential equations (PDEs) by finite element techniques has been developed on the effect of 1) dimensions of microelectrodes, 2) spatial arrangement of 3D microelectrode arrays, 3) geometry of microelectrode on the EBFC performance based on COMSOL Multiphysics.

In the second part of this thesis, in order to investigate the performance of an EBFC, behavior of an EBFC chip performance inside an artery has been studied. COMSOL Multiphysics software has also been applied to analyze mass transport for different orientations of an EBFC chip inside a blood artery. Two orientations: horizontal position (HP) and vertical position (VP) have been analyzed.

The third part of this thesis has been focused on experimental work towards high performance EBFC. This work has integrated graphene/enzyme onto three-dimensional (3D) micropillar arrays in order to obtain efficient enzyme immobilization, enhanced enzyme loading and facilitate direct electron transfer. The developed 3D graphene/enzyme network based EBFC generated a maximum power density of 136.3 μWcm-2 at 0.59 V, which is almost 7 times of the maximum power density of the bare 3D carbon micropillar arrays based EBFC.

To further improve the EBFC performance, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been integrated onto 3D mciropillar arrays to further increase EBFC performance in the fourth part of this thesisThe developed rGO/CNTs based EBFC generated twice the maximum power density of rGO based EBFC. Through a comparison of experimental and theoretical results, the cell performance efficiency is noted to be 67%.





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