Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Environmental Studies

First Advisor's Name

Assefa M. Melesse

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Mahadev Bhat

Third Advisor's Name

Michael Sukop

Fourth Advisor's Name

Michael E. McClain

Date of Defense



Increasing dependence on groundwater in the Wakal River basin, India, jeopardizes water supply sustainability. A numerical groundwater model was developed to better understand the aquifer system and to evaluate its potential in terms of quantity and replenishment. Potential artificial recharge areas were delineated using landscape and hydrogeologic parameters, Geographic Information System (GIS), and remote sensing.

Groundwater models are powerful tools for recharge estimation when transmissivity is known. Proper recharge must be applied to reproduce field-measured heads. The model showed that groundwater levels could decline significantly if there are two drought years in every four years that result in reduced recharge, and groundwater withdrawal is increased by 15%. The effect of such drought is currently uncertain however, because runoff from the basin is unknown. Remote sensing and GIS revealed areas with slopes less than 5%, forest cover, and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index greater than 0.5 that are suitable recharge sites.




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