Document Type



Electrical Engineering

First Advisor's Name

Kang K. Yen

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Jinsong Zhang

Third Advisor's Name

Hao Zhu

Fourth Advisor's Name

Chenzhong Li


Self-organization, Sensor networks, Target tracking, Energy-efficient, Power conservation

Date of Defense



With the developments in computing and communication technologies, wireless sensor networks have become popular in wide range of application areas such as health, military, environment and habitant monitoring. Moreover, wireless acoustic sensor networks have been widely used for target tracking applications due to their passive nature, reliability and low cost. Traditionally, acoustic sensor arrays built in linear, circular or other regular shapes are used for tracking acoustic sources. The maintaining of relative geometry of the acoustic sensors in the array is vital for accurate target tracking, which greatly reduces the flexibility of the sensor network. To overcome this limitation, we propose using only a single acoustic sensor at each sensor node. This design greatly improves the flexibility of the sensor network and makes it possible to deploy the sensor network in remote or hostile regions through air-drop or other stealth approaches. Acoustic arrays are capable of performing the target localization or generating the bearing estimations on their own. However, with only a single acoustic sensor, the sensor nodes will not be able to generate such measurements. Thus, self-organization of sensor nodes into virtual arrays to perform the target localization is essential. We developed an energy-efficient and distributed self-organization algorithm for target tracking using wireless acoustic sensor networks. The major error sources of the localization process were studied, and an energy-aware node selection criterion was developed to minimize the target localization errors. Using this node selection criterion, the self-organization algorithm selects a near-optimal localization sensor group to minimize the target tracking errors. In addition, a message passing protocol was developed to implement the self-organization algorithm in a distributed manner. In order to achieve extended sensor network lifetime, energy conservation was incorporated into the self-organization algorithm by incorporating a sleep-wakeup management mechanism with a novel cross layer adaptive wakeup probability adjustment scheme. The simulation results confirm that the developed self-organization algorithm provides satisfactory target tracking performance. Moreover, the energy saving analysis confirms the effectiveness of the cross layer power management scheme in achieving extended sensor network lifetime without degrading the target tracking performance.





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