Synthesis of multisubstituted halo-olefins via Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions : applications in nucleoside chemistry
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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The enzyme S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHey) hydrolase effects hydrolytic cleavage of AdoHcy to adenosine (Ado) and L-homocysteine (Hcy). The cellular levels of AdoHcy and Hcy are critical because AdoHcy is a potent feedback inhibitor of crucial transmethylation enzymes. Also, elevated plasma levels of Hcy in humans have been shown to be a risk factor in coronary artery disease.
On the basis of the previous finding that AdoHcy hydrolase is able to add the enzyme-sequestered water molecule across the 5',6'-double bond of (halo or dihalohomovinyl)-adenosines causing covalent binding inhibition, we designed and synthesized AdoHcy analogues with the 5',6'-olefin motif incorporated in place of the carbon-5' and sulfur atoms. From the available synthetic methods we chose two independent approaches: the first approach was based on the construction of a new C5'- C6' double bond via metathesis reactions, and the second approach was based on the formation of a new C6'-C7' single bond via Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings.
Cross-metathesis of the suitably protected 5'-deoxy-5'-methyleneadenosine with racemic 2-amino-5-hexenoate in the presence of Hoveyda-Grubb's catalyst followed by standard deprotection afforded the desired analogue as 5'E isomer of the inseparable mixture of 9'RIS diastereomers. Metathesis of chiral homoallylglycine [(2S)-amino-5-hexenoate] produced AdoHcy analogue with established stereochemistry E at C5'atom and S at C9' atom. The 5'-bromovinyl analogue was synthesized using the brominationdehydrobromination strategy with pyridinium tribromide and DBU.
Since literature reports on the Pd-catalyzed monoalkylation of dihaloalkenes (Csp2-Csp3 coupling) were scarce, we were prompted to undertake model studies on Pdcatalyzed coupling between vinyl dihalides and alkyl organometallics. The 1-fluoro-1- haloalkenes were found to undergo Negishi couplings with alkylzinc bromides to give multisubstituted fluoroalkenes. The alkylation was trans-selective affording pure Zfluoroalkenes. The highest yields were obtained with PdCl 2(dppb) catalyst, but the best stereochemical outcome was obtained with less reactive Pd(PPh3)4 . Couplings of 1,1- dichloro-and 1,1-dibromoalkenes with organozinc reagents resulted in the formation of monocoupled 1-halovinyl product.
Andrei, Daniela, "Synthesis of multisubstituted halo-olefins via Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions : applications in nucleoside chemistry" (2006). FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 1287.
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