Regulation of Adipocyte Differentiation and Metabolism: Rab5-Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors and Methylglyoxal
Internalization and trafficking of ligand-receptor complex rely on a particular set of proteins, e.g. small GTPase protein Rab5 and its activators called guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Rab5-activating protein 6 (RAP6), a Vps9-containing protein, may participate in Rab5-mediated insulin signaling and receptor trafficking. A dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal was found to alter insulin signaling in preadipocytes. This dissertation aimed to investigate the association of RAP6 activity on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and those driven by methylglyoxal. Overexpression of RAP6 inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, Ser473-phosphorylation of Akt1, and expression of adipogenic marker PPARγ, but not C/EBPα. Methylglyoxal (10 µM) increased preadipocyte differentiation, proliferation and expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα and p-Akt1-Ser473, but appeared to be neutralized by RAP6 overexpression. The findings suggest that RAP6 may be a key modulator in regulating the stimulatory effect of methylglyoxal on preadipocyte differentiation. The associations of predominant methylglyoxal-derived adduct, methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone 1 (MGH1), with selected risk factors of chronic diseases in Black participants with and without type 2 diabetes (n=234 controls and n=254 cases) were also investigated. Only in individuals with diabetes, MGH1 levels were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (B=0.240, p=0.037), homocysteine (B=0.355, p=0.014) and triglyceride (B=0.190, p=0.049). Being African Americans with type 2 diabetes was associated with lower MGH1 levels as compared to being Haitian American with diabetes (B=-0.334, p=0.016). The findings suggest that methylglyoxal may be linked to hyperglycemia and metabolic changes in type 2 diabetes, and may differently impact the development of diabetes across Black subgroups.
Chantarasinlapin, Praew, "Regulation of Adipocyte Differentiation and Metabolism: Rab5-Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors and Methylglyoxal" (2017). ProQuest ETD Collection for FIU. AAI10744195.