Arabic validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the 5C scale for assessment of COVID-19 vaccines psychological antecedents

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Background In the Arab countries, there has not been yet a specific validated Arabic questionnaire that can assess the psychological antecedents of COVID-19 vaccine among the general population. This study, therefore, aimed to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the 5C scale into the Arabic language. Methods The 5C scale was translated into Arabic by two independent bilingual co-authors, and then translated back into English. After reconciling translation disparities, the final Arabic questionnaire was disseminated into four randomly selected Arabic countries (Egypt, Libya, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Saudi Arabia). Data from 350 Arabic speaking adults (aged >= 18 years) were included in the final analysis. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was determined by concurrent, convergent, discriminant, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results Age of participants ranged between 18 to 73 years; 57.14% were females, 37.43% from Egypt, 36.86%, from UAE, 30% were healthcare workers, and 42.8% had the intention to get COVID-19 vaccines. The 5 sub-scales of the questionnaire met the criterion of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >= 0.7). The predictors of intention to get COVID-19 vaccines (concurrent validity) were young age and the 5C sub-scales. Convergent validity was identified by the significant inter-item and item-mean score of the sub-scale correlation (P<0.001). Discriminant validity was reported as inter-factor correlation matrix (<0.7). Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin sampling adequacy measure was 0.80 and Bartlett's sphericity test was highly significant (P<0.001). Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the 15 items of the questionnaire could be summarized into five factors. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that the hypothesized five-factor model of the 15-item questionnaire was satisfied with adequate psychometric properties and fit with observed data (RMSEA = 0.060, GFI = 0.924, CFI = 0.957, TLI = 0.937, SRMR = 0.076 & NFI = 906). Conclusion The Arabic version of the 5C scale is a valid and reliable tool to assess the psychological antecedents of COVID-19 vaccine among Arab population.


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