Hemiarthroplasty vs Total Hip Arthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fractures: 2010-2017 Trends in Complication Rates

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Background: Optimal treatment of femoral neck fractures (FNFs) remains debated. Recent data suggest that total hip arthroplasty (THA) confers improved functional outcomes compared to hemiarthroplasty (HA) in active patients. However, temporal trends in complication rates between these treatments lack study. Methods: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was retrospectively queried to compare differences between HA and THA over time (2010-2012, 2013-2015, and 2016-2017) in blood transfusions, operation time, major complications, minor complications, and 30-day readmission, among FNF patients aged ≥50 years. Analyses adjusted for age, gender, anesthesia type, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, bleeding disorder, steroid use, and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification. Results: In total, 16,213 patients were identified. THA was associated with higher transfusion rates in 2010-2012 (mean = 0.34 vs 0.28, P = .001) and 2013-2015 (mean = 0.21 vs 0.19, P = .002), but not in 2016-2017 (mean = 0.13 vs 0.14, P = .146). Operation time was significantly higher for THA across all periods (P's < .001), but declined over time. In recent years, THA was associated with less major (2016-2017: 5.4% vs 10.2%, P = .02; 2013-2015: 5.3% vs 10.3%, P < .001) and minor (2016-2017: 6.2% vs 9.8%, P = .02; 2013-2015: 7.2% vs 12.4%, P < .001) complications compared to 2010-2012 (major: 7.2% vs 10.6%, P = .87; minor: 12.6% vs 10.1%, P = .89). No differences in 30-day readmission were noted. Conclusion: THA was associated with less major and minor complications in recent time periods compared to HA for the treatment of FNF, controlling for comorbidities. THA trends in transfusions and operation duration have improved over time compared to HA.