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Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) is an evolutionary sample preparation approach which was introduced in 2014, meeting all green analytical chemistry (GAC) requirements by implementing a natural or synthetic permeable and flexible fabric substrate to host a chemically coated sol–gel organic–inorganic hybrid sorbent in the form of an ultra-thin coating. This construction results in a versatile, fast, and sensitive micro-extraction device. The user-friendly FPSE membrane allows direct extraction of analytes with no sample modification, thus eliminating/minimizing the sample pre-treatment steps, which are not only time consuming, but are also considered the primary source of major analyte loss. Sol–gel sorbent-coated FPSE membranes possess high chemical, solvent, and thermal stability due to the strong covalent bonding between the fabric substrate and the sol–gel sorbent coating. Subsequent to the extraction on FPSE membrane, a wide range of organic solvents can be used in a small volume to exhaustively back-extract the analytes after FPSE process, leading to a high preconcentration factor. In most cases, no solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution are necessary. In addition to the extensive simplification of the sample preparation workflow, FPSE has also innovatively combined the extraction principle of two major, yet competing sample preparation techniques: Solid phase extraction (SPE) with its characteristic exhaustive extraction, and solid phase microextraction (SPME) with its characteristic equilibrium driven extraction mechanism. Furthermore, FPSE has offered the most comprehensive cache of sorbent chemistry by successfully combining almost all of the sorbents traditionally used exclusively in either SPE or in SPME. FPSE is the first sample preparation technique to exploit the substrate surface chemistry that complements the overall selectivity and the extraction efficiency of the device. As such, FPSE indeed represents a paradigm shift approach in analytical/bioanalytical sample preparation. Furthermore, an FPSE membrane can be used as an SPME fiber or as an SPE disk for sample preparation, owing to its special geometric advantage. So far, FPSE has overwhelmingly attracted the interest of the separation scientist community, and many analytical scientists have been developing new methodologies by implementing this cutting-edge technique for the extraction and determination of many analytes at their trace and ultra-trace level concentrations in environmental samples as well as in food, pharmaceutical, and biological samples. FPSE offers a total sample preparation solution by providing neutral, cation exchanger, anion exchanger, mixed mode cation exchanger, mixed mode anion exchanger, zwitterionic, and mixed mode zwitterionic sorbents to deal with any analyte regardless of its polarity, ionic state, or the sample matrix where it resides. Herein we present the theoretical background, synthesis, mechanisms of extraction and desorption, the types of sorbents, and the main applications of FPSE so far according to different sample categories, and to briefly show the progress, advantages, and the main principles of the proposed technique.