In this manuscript we define a new term we call coastal groundwater discharge (CGD), which is related to submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), but occurs when seawater intrudes inland to force brackish groundwater to discharge to the coastal wetlands. A hydrologic and geochemical investigation of both the groundwater and surface water in the southern Everglades was conducted to investigate the occurrence of CGD associated with seawater intrusion. During the wet season, the surface water chemistry remained fresh. Enhanced chloride, sodium, and calcium concentrations, indicative of brackish groundwater discharge, were observed in the surface water during the dry season. Brackish groundwaters of the southern Everglades contain 1–2.3μM concentrations of total phosphorus (TP). These concentrations exceed the expected values predicted by conservative mixing of local fresh groundwater and intruding seawater, which both have TPμM. The additional source of TP may be from seawater sediments or from the aquifer matrix as a result of water–rock interactions (such as carbonate mineral dissolution and ion exchange reactions) induced by mixing fresh groundwater with intruding seawater. We hypothesize that CGD maybe an additional source of phosphorus (a limiting nutrient) to the coastal wetlands of the southern Everglades.
Price, R.M., P.K. Swart, J.W. Fourqurean. 2006. Coastal groundwater discharge - an additional source of phosphorus for the oligotrophic wetlands of the Everglades. Hydrobiologia 569(1): 23-36.