Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Environmental Studies

First Advisor's Name

Krishnaswamy Jayachandran

First Advisor's Committee Title

Major Advisor

Second Advisor's Name

Leonard J. Scinto

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

DeEtta Mills

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member


Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Pesticides, Organic, Glyphosate, Carbaryl, Neem Oil, Citrus Oil, Soil Health

Date of Defense



Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in improving the growth of a vast majority of plants. Past researchers have discovered that agricultural practices have a significant negative effect on the diversity of AMF. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are reported to enhance plant nutrient uptake, stress tolerance, and soil aggregate formation which are key aspects of productive low-input farming. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four pesticides on the ability of AMF to colonize the roots of okra plants (Abelmoschus esculentus). The pesticides being tested include two synthetic chemicals (glyphosate and carbaryl) and two organic chemicals (neem oil and citrus oil). The tested parameters included crop yield, plant biomass, leaf matter CNP, and the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in roots. The results of this study show that the organic chemicals had no significant effect on AMF colonization while the synthetic chemicals did have somewhat of a negative effect on colonization.





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