Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Computer Science

First Advisor's Name

Giri Narasimhan

First Advisor's Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Anthony McGoron

Third Advisor's Name

Geoffrey Smith

Fourth Advisor's Name

Tao Li

Keywords

image registration, shape registration, Hausdorff distance, deformable models, radiotherapy, feature based registration, patient positioning, Gabor features, multi-resolution, free form deformation

Date of Defense

11-13-2009

Abstract

The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop point-based rigid and non-rigid image registration methods that have better accuracy than existing methods. We first present point-based PoIRe, which provides the framework for point-based global rigid registrations. It allows a choice of different search strategies including (a) branch-and-bound, (b) probabilistic hill-climbing, and (c) a novel hybrid method that takes advantage of the best characteristics of the other two methods. We use a robust similarity measure that is insensitive to noise, which is often introduced during feature extraction. We show the robustness of PoIRe using it to register images obtained with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), which have large amounts of scatter and low contrast. To evaluate PoIRe we used (a) simulated images and (b) images with fiducial markers; PoIRe was extensively tested with 2D EPID images and images generated by 3D Computer Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. PoIRe was also evaluated using benchmark data sets from the blind retrospective evaluation project (RIRE). We show that PoIRe is better than existing methods such as Iterative Closest Point (ICP) and methods based on mutual information. We also present a novel point-based local non-rigid shape registration algorithm.

We extend the robust similarity measure used in PoIRe to non-rigid registrations adapting it to a free form deformation (FFD) model and making it robust to local minima, which is a drawback common to existing non-rigid point-based methods. For non-rigid registrations we show that it performs better than existing methods and that is less sensitive to starting conditions. We test our non-rigid registration method using available benchmark data sets for shape registration.

Finally, we also explore the extraction of features invariant to changes in perspective and illumination, and explore how they can help improve the accuracy of multi-modal registration. For multimodal registration of EPID-DRR images we present a method based on a local descriptor defined by a vector of complex responses to a circular Gabor filter.

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