Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in Hispanic adolescents

Gianna Perez Gomez, Florida International University

Abstract

This cross-sectional study evaluated risk factors (RF) for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in 100 Hispanic adolescents(50 overweight, 50 non-overweight) aged 12-16 years, and their associations with body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity (PA), gender, and birth weight (BW). The RF studied were fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin sensitivity (IS), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), acanthosis nigricans (AN), and blood pressure (BP). Dietary intakes were assessed using the Block Kids Questionnaire, fat-related intake behavior (FB) using the Fat-Related Diet Habits Questionnaire, and PA using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Blood was collected after an overnight fast of 12 hours. All statistical analyses used SPSS 14.0. ^ Overweight adolescents had presence of AN, higher BP, TC, TG, and LDL, and lower IS, ps < .001, as compared to non-overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents were more likely to have 1 and 2 RF for T2DM and CVD as compared to having 0, ps < .001, and 2 RF as compared to having 1, p =.033. Adolescents with kilocalorie (Kcal) intake above requirements for age gender, and PA level were 4.6 times more likely to be overweight, p = .005. Overweight adolescents had worse FB, p = .011, and lower PA, p < .001. Adolescents with worse FB had higher BP, p = .016. Fiber below recommendations (14g/1,000 Kcal) was associated with being overweight, p = .012, and lower IS, p = .040. Adolescents with higher BW had higher FPG, p = .013. Our findings point to an association between being overweight and RF for T2DM and CVD, suggesting that overweight during adolescence may have serious health consequences for Hispanic adolescents. Also, our results indicate that Hispanic overweight adolescents eat more Kcal and less fiber than required, have worst FB, and less PA levels than their non-overweight counterparts. In addition, high BW and dietary habits of Hispanic adolescents, such as low fiber and FB, increase their risk for T2DM and CVD. We conclude that BMI can serve as a useful tool to identify Hispanic adolescents at risk for T2DM and CVD. ^

Subject Area

Health Sciences, Nutrition|Health Sciences, Public Health|Hispanic American Studies

Recommended Citation

Gianna Perez Gomez, "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in Hispanic adolescents" (January 1, 2007). ProQuest ETD Collection for FIU. Paper AAI3298596.
http://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/dissertations/AAI3298596

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