Authors

Jessica Napuri, Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida
Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida; Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida; Center for Personalized Nanomedicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FloridaFollow
Andrea Raymond, Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida; Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FloridaFollow
Marisela Agudelo, Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida; Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FloridaFollow
Adriana Yndart-Arias, Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida; Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida; Center for Personalized Nanomedicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FloridaFollow
Madhavan Nair, Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida; Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida; Center for Personalized Nanomedicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FloridaFollow
Shailendra K. Saxena, CSIR-Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India

Date of this Version

12-31-2013

Document Type

Article

Abstract

Cocaine and other drugs of abuse increase HIV-induced immunopathogenesis; and neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine addiction implicate a key role for microRNAs (miRNAs), single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and defend against viruses. In fact, HIV defends against miRNAs by actively suppressing the expression of polycistronic miRNA cluster miRNA-17/92, which encodes miRNAs including miR-20a. IFN-g production by natural killer cells is regulated by miR-155 and this miRNA is also critical to dendritic cell (DC) maturation. However, the impact of cocaine on miR-155 expression and subsequent HIV replication is unknown. We examined the impact of cocaine on two miRNAs, miR-20a and miR-155, which are integral to HIV replication, and immune activation. Using miRNA isolation and analysis, RNA interference, quantitative real time PCR, and reporter assays we explored the effects of cocaine on miR-155 and miR-20 in the context of HIV infection. Here we demonstrate using monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDCCs) that cocaine significantly inhibited miR-155 and miR-20a expression in a dose dependent manner. Cocaine and HIV synergized to lower miR-155 and miR-20a in MDDCs by 90%. Cocaine treatment elevated LTR-mediated transcription and PU.1 levels in MDCCs. But in context of HIV infection, PU.1 was reduced in MDDCs regardless of cocaine presence. Cocaine increased DC-SIGN and and decreased CD83 expression in MDDC, respectively. Overall, we show that cocaine inhibited miR-155 and prevented maturation of MDDCs; potentially, resulting in increased susceptibility to HIV-1. Our findings could lead to the development of novel miRNA-based therapeutic strategies targeting HIV infected cocaine abusers.

Comments

This article was originally published in PLoS One.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.