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The mammalian high mobility group protein AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is a chromosomal architectural transcription factor involved in cell transformation and oncogenesis. It consists of three positively charged “AT-hooks” and a negatively charged C-terminus. Sequence analyses, circular dichroism experiments, and gel-filtration studies showed that HMGA2, in the native state, does not have a defined secondary or tertiary structure. Surprisingly, using combined approaches of 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and mass spectrometry, we discovered that HMGA2 is capable of selfassociating into homodimers in aqueous buffer solution. Our results showed that electrostatic interactions between the positively charged “AT-hooks” and the negatively charged C-terminus greatly contribute to the homodimer formation.
Frost L, Baez MAM, Harrilal C, Garabedian A, Fernandez-Lima F, Leng F (2015) The Dimerization State of the Mammalian High Mobility Group Protein AT-Hook 2 (HMGA2). PLoS ONE 10(6): e0130478. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130478