Date of this Version


Document Type



The designations “digital immigrants” and “digital natives” have become quite popular among educators in the United States and perhaps other countries. However, the two designations are not based on research. A survey of 359 college students who were born in the digital age showed that participants exhibited both “native” as well as “immigrant” behaviors. The authors discuss the findings of the study and propose the two alternative designations “digital nerds” and “digital normals.”


Originally published in the International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License

Included in

Education Commons



Rights Statement

Rights Statement

No Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Only. URI:
This object has been digitized in a public-private partnership. As part of this partnership, the partners have agreed to limit commercial uses of this digital representation of the object by third parties. You can, without permission, copy, modify, distribute, display, or perform the digital object, for non-commercial uses. For any other permissible uses, please review the terms and conditions of the organization that has made the item available.