Title

Coccidioidomycosis in Latin America

Date of Publication

2019 12:00 AM

Security Theme

Health

Keywords

srhreports, health, Coccidioidomycosis, Latin America, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina, epidemiology, limited laboratory access, healthcare access, diagnostic access, microorganism exposure, public health, public health impact

Description

"Coccidioidomycosis is a highly prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America and has been reported (human and zoonotic cases) in México, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis in Latin America is unknown due to lack of clinical awareness and limited access to laboratory diagnosis. Coccidioidomycosis is as prevalent in Mexico as in the endemic regions of the United States. The number of cases reported in Brazil and Argentina has progressively increased during the last decade, including areas that were not considered as endemic. Genetic studies have shown that the prevalent species in Latin America is Coccidioides posadasii. Coccidioides immitis has been reported sporadically in indigenous cases from Mexico and Colombia. Coccidioidomycosis and tuberculosis share some risk factors such as immunosuppression and residing in areas endemic for these conditions, so their coexistence in the same patient is not uncommon in Latin America. In most regions, clinical diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis is based on direct sputum examination and histopathology results from biopsies or autopsies. This would explain why primary coccidioidomycosis is rarely diagnosed, and most cases published are about chronic pulmonary or disseminated disease."

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Jan 1st, 12:00 AM

Coccidioidomycosis in Latin America

"Coccidioidomycosis is a highly prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America and has been reported (human and zoonotic cases) in México, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis in Latin America is unknown due to lack of clinical awareness and limited access to laboratory diagnosis. Coccidioidomycosis is as prevalent in Mexico as in the endemic regions of the United States. The number of cases reported in Brazil and Argentina has progressively increased during the last decade, including areas that were not considered as endemic. Genetic studies have shown that the prevalent species in Latin America is Coccidioides posadasii. Coccidioides immitis has been reported sporadically in indigenous cases from Mexico and Colombia. Coccidioidomycosis and tuberculosis share some risk factors such as immunosuppression and residing in areas endemic for these conditions, so their coexistence in the same patient is not uncommon in Latin America. In most regions, clinical diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis is based on direct sputum examination and histopathology results from biopsies or autopsies. This would explain why primary coccidioidomycosis is rarely diagnosed, and most cases published are about chronic pulmonary or disseminated disease."