Date of this Version


Document Type



In this investigation, the Control Volume based Finite Element Method (CVFEM) is used to simulate the natural convection heat transfer of Cu–water nanofluid in an annulus enclosure. The Maxwell–Garnetts (MG) and Brinkman models are also employed to estimate the effect of thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid. The governing parameters are the Rayleigh number, nanoparticle volume fraction and the aspect ratio (ratio of the outer radius to the inner one). Results are presented in the form of isotherms, streamlines, local and average Nusselt numbers. The results indicate that increment of the aspect ratio increases the value of average Nusselt number. Moreover, the angle of turn for the boundary condition of the inner cylinder significantly affects the values of local Nusselt number, average Nusselt number, streamlines and isotherms.


Originally published in Ain Shams Engineering Journal.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.



Rights Statement

Rights Statement

In Copyright - Non-Commmercial Use Permitted. URI:
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. In addition, no permission is required from the rights-holder(s) for non-commercial uses. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).