This issue of Hemisphere examines some of the steps that are being taken to conserve marine, terrestrial and urban ecosystems for the biodiversity they contain and the human communities that depend upon them for sustainable livelihoods. The invited contributors to this issue work at NGOs, botanic gardens and universities in The Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Mexico, El Salvador and the United States. The articles not only raise concerns for the social, economic and environmental consequences of climate change in the region, but also explore avenues for facing these challenges and offer clear case examples in which imperative actions are needed.