Document Type



Exceptional Student Education

First Advisor's Name

Dr. Patricia Barbetta

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Dr. Benjamin Baez

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

Dr. Elizabeth Cramer

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Dr. Diana Valle-Riestra

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Date of Defense



This study investigated the effects of repeated readings on the reading abilities of 4, third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade English language learners (ELLs) with specific learning disabilities (SLD). A multiple baseline probe design across subjects was used to explore the effects of repeated readings on four dependent variables: reading fluency (words read correctly per minute; wpm), number of errors per minute (epm), types of errors per minute, and answer to literal comprehension questions. Data were collected and analyzed during baseline, intervention, generalization probes, and maintenance probes. Throughout the baseline and intervention phases, participants read a passage aloud and received error correction feedback. During baseline, this was followed by fluency and literal comprehension question assessments. During intervention, this was followed by two oral repeated readings of the passage. Then the fluency and literal comprehension question assessments were administered. Generalization probes followed approximately 25% of all sessions and consisted of a single reading of a new passage at the same readability level. Maintenance sessions occurred 2-, 4-, and 6-weeks after the intervention ended. The results of this study indicated that repeated readings had a positive effect on the reading abilities of ELLs with SLD. Participants read more wpm, made fewer epm, and answered more literal comprehension questions correctly. Additionally, on average, generalization scores were higher in intervention than in baseline. Maintenance scores were varied when compared to the last day of intervention, however, with the exception of the number of hesitations committed per minute maintenance scores were higher than baseline means. This study demonstrated that repeated readings improved the reading abilities of ELLs with SLD and that gains were generalized to untaught passages. Maintenance probes 2-, 4-, and 6- weeks following intervention indicated that mean reading fluency, errors per minute, and correct answers to literal comprehensive questions remained above baseline levels. Future research should investigate the use of repeated readings in ELLs with SLD at various stages of reading acquisition. Further, future investigations may examine how repeated readings can be integrated into classroom instruction and assessments.





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