Document Type



Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor's Name

William M. Kurtines

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Dionne P. Stephens

Third Advisor's Name

Mary J. Levitt


Positive Youth Development, Control, Empowerment, Adolescents, Identity

Date of Defense



The Changing Lives Program (CLP) is a Positive Youth Development (PYD) program that seeks to empower adolescents attending voluntary alternative high schools to take control and responsibility over their lives so they may change their negative life pathways into positive ones. The current study seeks to evaluate the CLP’s Personal Control and Responsibility Measure, an eight item scale devised to assess individuals control and responsibility over life change goals (CRLCG) and life in general (CRG). Using a weighted least squares mean and variance adjusted (WLSMV) estimator available in Mplus for categorical variable modeling, the current study ran confirmatory factory analysis on two theoretically possible models, a single factor and a two factor structure. After items regarding control over consequences dropped, results confirmed the hypothesized two factor model (CRLCG and CRG). Furthermore, analysis of measurement invariance found the factor structure form, factor loadings, and intercepts to be invariant across condition, gender, ethnicity, and time (time 1 and 2). Limitations of the current study and implications for future evaluations of the Changing Lives Program (CLP) are discussed.





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